These two cats are recognisably the same kind of cat, with several similar characteristics. I therefore conclude they are the same cat, with different names.
These cats grew up near each other. They, too, are the same cat.
This cat is from the other side of the world from this other cat, but they look very similar. Therefore, I conclude that the cats must have the same parent.
This cat reminds me of a cat I know. I therefore understand everything about this cat.
This cat does not seem to behave the same way as the cats I am familiar with. It is therefore a primitive, naive kind of cat.
This cat is the oldest cat I know of. Therefore, all younger cats have learnt their essential qualities from this cat.
I have never seen this kind of cat before. I therefore conclude that aliens brought it to earth.